The U.S. International Trade Commission imposed preliminary antidumping duties on Chinese makers of OCTG pipe ranging from 36.5% t0 99% on Nov. 5. They apply to imports that totaled $2.6 billion in 2008, reportedly the largest trade sanction ever imposed by the U.S. These are in addition to previous countervailing duties of 10.7% to 30.% the ITC announced in September on these products. The action was in response to a petition filed by six U.S. steel pipe manufacturers earlier this year. China responded with a host of retaliatory trade actions that sparked fears of a trade war.